Startup
December 12, 2022

# Understanding Accumulated Depreciation: How it Affects Your Company's Assets and Financial Statements

The Restaurant Business An Accounting Guide

## What is Accumulated Depreciation?

Accumulated depreciation is the total amount of depreciation expense that has been recorded for a long-term asset over its useful life. In other words, it is the total amount of wear and tear that has been recorded on an asset since it was purchased.

### Why is Accumulated Depreciation Important?

Accumulated depreciation is an important concept in accounting because it allows a company to accurately reflect the value of its assets on its financial statements. When an asset is purchased, it is recorded at its original cost. However, as the asset is used and depreciated over time, its value decreases. Accumulated depreciation helps to account for this decrease in value and ensures that the asset is properly reflected on the balance sheet.

### How is Accumulated Depreciation Calculated?

Accumulated depreciation is calculated using the following formula:

Accumulated Depreciation = Beginning Accumulated Depreciation + Depreciation Expense for the Period

The beginning accumulated depreciation is the amount of accumulated depreciation recorded at the beginning of the accounting period. The depreciation expense for the period is the amount of depreciation recorded during the current accounting period.

### Example of Accumulated Depreciation

To better understand how accumulated depreciation works, let's look at an example.

Let's say a company purchases a machine for \$100,000 and expects it to have a useful life of 10 years. The company decides to use the straight-line method of depreciation, which means that the depreciation expense will be evenly spread out over the asset's useful life. In this case, the annual depreciation expense would be \$10,000 (\$100,000 / 10 years).

At the end of the first year, the company would record a depreciation expense of \$10,000 and an accumulated depreciation of \$10,000. At the end of the second year, the company would record an additional depreciation expense of \$10,000 and an accumulated depreciation of \$20,000. This process would continue until the end of the asset's useful life, at which point the accumulated depreciation would equal the asset's original cost.

### How is Accumulated Depreciation Reported on the Financial Statements?

Accumulated depreciation is reported on the balance sheet as a deduction from the original cost of the asset. This is because accumulated depreciation represents the decrease in value of the asset due to wear and tear. The original cost of the asset minus the accumulated depreciation is known as the "net book value" of the asset.

For example, if a company has an asset with an original cost of \$100,000 and accumulated depreciation of \$50,000, the net book value of the asset would be \$50,000 (\$100,000 - \$50,000).

### Impact of Accumulated Depreciation on the Income Statement

Accumulated depreciation does not directly impact the income statement. However, the depreciation expense recorded during an accounting period will reduce net income on the income statement. This is because depreciation is a non-cash expense, meaning that it does not involve any actual cash outflow. Instead, it is an expense that is recorded to reflect the decrease in value of an asset over time.

### Accumulated Depreciation and Asset Disposal

When an asset is disposed of, any remaining accumulated depreciation is removed from the company's books. This is because the asset is no longer being used by the company and therefore has no remaining value.

For example, if a company disposes of an asset with an original cost of \$100,000 and accumulated depreciation of \$80,000, the company would record a gain or loss on the disposal equal to the difference between the net book value of the asset (original cost minus accumulated depreciation) and the amount received from the disposal.

If the asset is sold for more than its net book value, the company will record a gain on the disposal. For example, if the asset in our example above is sold for \$90,000, the company would record a gain of \$10,000 (\$90,000 - \$80,000).

On the other hand, if the asset is sold for less than its net book value, the company will record a loss on the disposal. For example, if the asset in our example above is sold for \$70,000, the company would record a loss of \$10,000 (\$80,000 - \$70,000).

### Conclusion

Accumulated depreciation is an important concept in accounting that allows a company to accurately reflect the value of its assets on its financial statements. It is calculated by adding the beginning accumulated depreciation to the depreciation expense recorded during the current accounting period. Accumulated depreciation is reported on the balance sheet as a deduction from the original cost of the asset and is removed from the books when an asset is disposed of. Understanding accumulated depreciation is essential for accurately interpreting a company's financial statements and making informed business decisions.